Experimental Poetry in Spain
Laura López Fernández,
Georgetown College, Kentucky
Contemporary experimental poetry, in its various forms of manifestation
-- visual poetry, phonetic poetry, sound poetry, performance
poetry, non-object poetry or action art, video poetry, cyber
poetry, computer holopoetry, mail-art, etc. is an integrative
and interactive art that requires a "reader" willing
to participate in a new configuration of semiotic codes. Experimental
poets in Spain are working with new artistic parameters and pushing
the boundaries of conventional categories of genre. The artistic
expansion they are generating comes from a direct relation to
available technologies. Most of these poets are multimedia artists
working in the technological culture of the image and the sound.
They are aware of the possibilities of the new technologies and
use them as a transnational medium, to reconfigure our established
poetic geographies and imagination. They consider insufficient
the use of one artistic language; thus they employ, decode and
mix different languages and techniques to produce a multisensorial
and interactive poetic work. Experimental poets are reconfiguring
symbolically their subjective experience, which is a product
of new interrelations between the artistic work, the technology
used and the perceiver.
The interaction between multiple artistic languages is a constant
characteristic of experimental poetry. An experimental visual
poet, for example, can use calligraphy, graphic design, collage,
textures, color, and space as part of a visual poem. Sound poets
and performers may use the human voice, with or without electronic
manipulation, sounds, gestures, body language, and music to produce
a sound poem or a phonetic poem. Experimental poets have always
given priority to space-temporal relationships in a dialectic
play of interaction between the parts and the whole. These artists
create a dynamic and significant relationship between signs in
the poem and their different possible structures: morphological,
phonetic, syntactic, and semantic. Verbal, visual, and sound
elements are combined in an active and fragmented mode. In their
work usually syntax is subordinated to a paratactic structure.
As part of this scenery there is also a tendency to produce collective
poetry. Today, for example, we have experiments like mail-art,
or hypermedia poems that are looking for any reader to be a physical
co-creator of the e-texts. These and other artistic compositions
exist in part because of the continuous advances in technology,
and because of a new perception of what is considered art. We
can state with Spatola in his classic book Verso la poesia
totale (1969) that the essence of art in our day is not any
longer divided into categories of music, painting, or poetry
but is made by different experiments that when changing the codes,
break down the barriers between different genres.
Although it is not the purpose of this essay to explain how technology
changes the production and reception of art, some of the new
poetic experiments using electro acoustic methods, computers,
graphic design, mathematics, etc., affect our perception of the
message, challenging our traditional and "neoclassical"
definition of art divided into different genres, and individualized
disciplines. The most radical experimental poems today are probably
the holographic and fractal poems by Eduardo Kac (a Brazilian
multimedia artist and professor in the USA). These poems are
multilinear, interactive, open-ended, incomplete, and can not
be translated or printed completely into paper because of their
multiple dimensions. In order to define these new experiments
as poetry we need to have a very inclusive notion of poetry.
In the new electronic era there is a potential for a bigger complexity
of interrelations than ever before. The subject, the author,
the reader, and the poem are related in a multiple, immediate,
and unfinished chain of textuality where the context of impermanence
is the dominant way of reading and composing.
Media theorists such as McLuhan, Walter Ong, or Neil Postman
believed that if we change the medium we change the message.
They assumed that transmission determines reception and reception
determines reaction. In less than half a century we have moved
from a condition of essential isolation into one of intense mediation.
We are living in a computerized society and that is changing
our way of reading, listening and seeing the world (Sven Birkerts,
1994). 1 The new multimedia poetry brings us other possibilities
and horizons for the arts that impose a new concept of textuality,
literature, poetry, poem, reader, art and reality. George P.
Landow in his already classic book, Hypertext. The convergence
of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology, studies carefully
the effects of writing and reading virtual texts. He talks about
a paradigm shift reflected in the writings of J. Derrida, Theodor
Nelson, Roland Barthes, and Andries Van Dam. These authors argue
that we must abandon conceptual systems founded upon ideas of
center, margin, hierarchy, and linearity and replace them with
ones of multilinearity, nodes, links, and networks. Landow defines
hypertext as a text composed of blocks of text, what Barthes
terms lexia. Hypermedia simply extends the notion of the text
into hypertext by including visual information, sound, animation,
and other forms of data. 2
All ages have had their experimental poets and artists that challenged
their audience in different ways. Some of these artists became
part of important avant-garde movements. In the first three decades
of this century we can mention the Surrealists, the Futurists,
the Dadaists, and the Cubists as the main creators of new artistic
expressions. Social and cultural conditions in the environment
have to be included as an important background for the new creations
to exist. Today, we are too close to judge the permanence of
most of the new experimental and multimedia poetry but we can
state that there are a significant variety of expressions that
may confirm a paradigm shift for poetry and art in general.
New experimental poetry did not start from zero. These artists
follow tendencies generated years and centuries ago but employ
them in a new context. New and historical avant-gardes share
a tendency to work in a marginal zone, presenting new creative
processes that most of the times have been identified as anti-art
by the conservative powers. Historical avant-gardes in the Western
World have a long tradition. Miguel D'Ors in his book El Caligrama
de Simmias a Apollinaire. Historia y antología de una
tradición clásica studies a long tradition
of experimental poets such as the Romans, artists in the Middle
Ages, in the 16th and 17th centuries, and more recent ones. We
can see and read avant-garde poems in the 300 B.C like the calligram
"The egg" by Simias de Rodas. This is a non linear
poem that is composed in the egg form and must be read in a non
sequential order starting in the first line and then going to
the last line that is the second line, then going to the second
line which work as the third one, until one finishes reading
it in the center of the poem. Other artists and compositions
are Teocritus and his Latin calligrams, the numerologic tradition
of the medieval poets, the syllogistic poems of the Catalan Raimundo
de Lulio in the 13th century, the pentagrams in the form of a
heart made by Baude Cordier in the 14th century, and the Baroque's
compositions by Juan del Vado. The Baroque artists started producing
visual and musical poems such as the labyrinths of J. Caramuel
and Giovanni Battista della Porta. 3
In the 20th century the Western World avant-garde movements spread
fast and easily among countries because of the technological
advances. Movements like Dadaism, Cubism, Surrealism, Futurism,
the phonetic experiments of Henri Chopin starting in the fifties,
the Concrete Movement, Lettrisme, Spatialism with Pierre Garnier,
etc., expanded the possibilities of understanding poetry and
tried to liberate the artist from rigid codes, although creating
new tensions between the poems and the audience. These poets
provoked the audience with their utopias but also with new creations.
One of the utopias of the first 20th century avant-garde movements
was the integration of life and art (Peter Bürger, 1974).
This is still an issue that some multimedia artists follow today
but approaching the relationship in a different mode.
Some of the famous Surrealists, Dadaists, and Futurists, born
in high and middle class families, were producing a defiant art
against the accepted culture. Ironically today some artistic
works that were attacking the established culture became part
of the conventional literary and artistic traditions. Nowadays
multimedia artists are also against the classical institution
of Art because of its limitations but the artists don't intend
for their art to last, as Stewart Home says: "Si el Futurismo,
el Dadaísmo y el Surrealismo querían integrar el
arte en la vida, hoy la vanguardia quiere consignar la categorización
del olvido." 4
Two of the 20th century avant-garde movements that influenced
most of the contemporary experimental poetry in Spain are Surrealism
and Concrete Poetry. Surrealists worked with the unconscious,
the écriture automatique, the aesthetic value of
chance, and the use of different languages and their self-referentiality.
Concrete Poetry, publicly born in Brazil in the 1960s is one
of the best examples of innovation and compromise. As part of
their formal experiments Concrete poets atomized the words, used
typographic resources, ideograms, a relational syntax, and space-temporal
structures. Décio Pignatari, Augusto de Campos and Haroldo
de Campos had Mallarmé as one of their precursors. These
poets, theorists, and professors of semiotics created a new dynamics
between the visual elements of the poem and their semantic value.
They created a new expression of social compromise, respecting
the word, but expanding its functionality towards a new relational
Some of the most important Spanish experimental poets after the
Civil War are Juan Eduardo Cirlot, Carlos Edmundo de Ory, Carles
Sindreu, Joan Brossa,
Guillem Viladot, Miguel Labordeta, José Luis Castillejo,
Fernando Millán, Felipe Boso, and Antonio Gómez.
We have to remember that the Franco regime (1939-1975) conditioned
the evolution of many Spanish artists because of the lack of
freedom, and lack of support. The intentions of their experimental
work vary considerably.
The creative and investigative work of Juan Eduardo Cirlot (1916-1973)
was not enough recognized for a long time. He was a musician,
an intellectual, a critic of art, a medievalist, the author of
a dictionary of symbols, he wrote regular poetry, surrealistic
poetry, and also experimental poetry (especially phonetic poetry
and visual poetry). His poetry evolved from Surrealism towards
permutation poetry, where combination of letters and words in
different geometrical shapes is the main technique. In his book
Inger. Permutaciones (1971) we can see this technique.
He used his knowledge of music to include permutations as a poetic
value. Edmundo de Ory (1923-) is a poet that was part of the
poetic movement called Postismo, a practice influenced by Surrealism
but with its own identity. Miguel Labordeta (1921-1969) was also
a poet influenced by Surrealism being fantasy, and imagination
one of his leitmotivs. Carles Sindreu (1900-1974) and Joan Brossa
(1919-1998) were the first poets in Catalonia continuing the
avant-garde in the forties. They created the first visual poems
after the Spanish Civil War. According to Ramón Salvo
in "Carles Sindreu I Joan Brossa en els origins de la poesia
visual europea (1939-1941)" Carles Sindreu published in
Barcelona three poems without signature in an album whose title
was Homenaje de Cataluña liberada a su Caudillo Franco
(1939). Ramón Salvo declares that Sindreu's innovative
work has to do with the creation of photomontage-poems, which
are composed of the union of a calligram and a photography. José
Luis Castillejo (1932- ) is another original experimental poet
that has no been very recognized yet. His innovative poetry is
connected at the beginning with the group Zaj, but after that
he explores repetitive patterns and combinations of letters in
their own playing space following an abstract process like
El libro de veinte letras, or The book of í's
(1970) for example.
Joan Brossa (1919- 1998) was another extraordinary artist (a
poet, a dramaturge, and a plastic artist). Fernando Millán
considers him the father of many different experiments, such
as the object-poem, and visual poetry that were developed later
in the seventies and the eighties. At the same time we need to
mention another great catalan visual artist, but not well known
outside of Cataluña was Guillem Viladot (Agramunt, Lleida
1922-1999). He was a writer, and an experimental visual poet,
expression where he includes sculpture and abstract painting.
One of his best visual poetry books is Poesia T/47 (1971), and
if one desires to see his whole works one must visit his "Casa
de la poesía visual" in Agramunt, Lleida.
Other younger experimental artists are Antonio Gómez (member
of the Group of Cuenca), a poet and a painter and since the eighties
is organizer, and editor of different projects like mail-art.
Felipe Boso (dead in 1983) and Fernando Millán were publishing
and doing many activities in the seventies and eighties. Concrete
poetry influences their works, especially the use of ideogram.
In 1995 was published Felipe Boso's experimental book Los
poemas concretos. Fernando Millán (1944- )
is an experimental poet, a literary critic, an activist who publishes
experimental poetry and is very committed to poetic innovation
and social problems. He starts creating experimental poetry in
Problemática 63 with the Uruguayan Julio Campal
(1934-1968) between 1964-1968. He explores the verbal and visual
components of the poetic communication enriching the content
of a traditional poem, and creating new dimensions to the text,
which remains open to the reception's moment. He has experimental
books of poetry composed in the late sixties and seventies that
precede many practices of the eighties.
Some of Millán's earliest books are Criptogramas
(1968-1973) where syncretism is the main language, Mitogramas
(1968-1976) which is a significant anthology of different books
composed by the author, with his own explanatory introduction
about the intentions of his poetry, and Textos y Antitextos
(1970) which is considered the first book of visual poetry in
Spain if we understand visual poetry as a genre (although is
not a uniform genre) where words are not the main component,
but another element working at the same level with the language
of color, fragments of letters and other icons. Textos y Antitextos
is a collection of different visual and verbal experiments
composed in the late sixties. The book has an experimental prologue
whose title is: "algo así como un prólogo"
divided in four parts, and four sections numbered with words
in different colors. Millán explores here the language
of color, contrasts between black and white, geometrical shapes
in black with fragments of letters, and the destructive-creative
process of crossing out texts. Besides its plastic quality, this
book offers a non-linear method of reading the poem and significant
interactions between experimental uses of space, intensifying
the relation between meaning and emptiness, between what is supposed
to be a text and what is an antitext. What Millán is trying
to do here is poetry with non-poetic elements, continuing an
Some of the artists mentioned above, worked individually and
also in groups such as the Catalan Group formed by Guillem Viladot,
Joan Brossa and Josep M. Iglesias. The experimental group Zaj
(1964-1968) concentrated more on the use music and sounds. J.
E. Cirlot, Joan Brossa, Carlos Edmundo de Ory, were also part
of the Catalan group Dau al set. The Cuenca group was also important
in the seventies with artists such as Carlos de la Rica, which
was also a priest, and editor, Antonio Gómez, Luis M.
Muro, and José Antonio Rojas. They published an anthology
of experimental poetry but the life of these groups was brief
due to many factors, especially the political one.
Another important group was Problemática 63 created
by the Uruguayan poet Julio Campal in 1962. These artists and
theorists wanted to inform about the evolution and problems of
art. Problemática 63 was influenced by the new
abstract expressionism and the pop art that originated in United
States (Millán, 1997). From this group derived other groups
like Cooperativa de Producción Artística y Artesana,
the N.O group, and the authors of the editorial Parnaso 70. All
of them worked towards an integration of the arts and explored
the concept of an art of synthesis. Fernando Millán founded
the N.O group with poets such as Enrique Uribe connected with
French Spatialisme (Pierre Garnier and others), Jokin Díez,
and Jesús García Sánchez. According to Fernando
Millán thanks to the many international contacts that
Julio Campal had, these Spanish artists were able to know what
other artists were doing in other countries like Italy, for example.
This opportunity was very significant in an isolationist country
like Spain at that time. This avant-garde group was also influenced
by Concrete poetry, through Angel Crespo (1926-1997) who in 1956
contacted the Brazilian Concrete poets.
The N.O poets have a strong plastic imagination, combining verbal
and visual simultanism, using ideograms, typography, and visual
structures to produce, present and represent a new art liberated
from its rigid conventional patterns. Various significant N.O
poems made in 1965 and 1966 by Millán are the "textchones"
(textos+tachones) but he didn't published the first one until
1968, and it was a postcard. That same poem "(progresión/negativa/2)"
was reproduced in the poster of the group N.O in May of 1969.
These texts are very unique, and revolutionary. The author crosses
out the whole text or most of the text leaving out some textual
fragments in the form of a square, a circle, or a non-geometrical
form. He starts out this process in 1965 but this is part of
a longer project where he is crossing out entire books that he
is going to take to the Guinness Book of records. He says that
in its origins this creative process is familiar to the practices
of the 60s. The "tachaduras" can look like a typical
image of the year 1968, but there is an evolution in that process
according to Millán. It starts as an image and becomes
a technique able to produce different shades and tonalities.
We have to say that some "Caligrama" by Julio Campal
in 7 Caligramas uses the same procedure of crossing out
former texts, and later on Rafael Marín in his poem "Forma
en conserva" Poesía Experimental 93 does something
similar to the idea of la tachadura but these are isolated poems.
Blanca Millán in Poesía Visual en España
(1999) gives references of other artists following this practice
such as J. M. Calleja, Antonio Gómez, and José
The written and visual fragmentation of the pattern he produced
in "textchones" gives us the sense of creating a thesis
(traditional text), an antithesis (crossing out the written text)
and its synthesis (presenting a new creation). The idea of crossing
out what it was written is very significant of an avant-garde
spirit. In doing this, the author is questioning any fixed meaning,
and in a Derridian manner, is suggesting the infinite possibilities
of the text in each reading. Millán is emphasizing his
antagonism to a univocal relation between the text and the reader.
The written language is not any more representative. The letters,
the words, the texts, the books must give us dynamic meanings.
There is a close relationship
between life and art; both are a whole in constant change. The
printed page is meaningful in a contradictory way.
Fernando Millán. Poemas N.O.
This N.O poem exemplifies Millán deconstructive artistic
practice. This poem with their visual solid frames (interior
and exterior) creates a significant tension at different levels.
There is a sense of being in the limits of any comprehensible
order. The geometrical form (rectangles) of the text, the "tachadura"
or crossing out, and the ink falling down like in an abstract
painting, produces a tension between order and chaos, between
linearity and discontinuity, but also creates a sense of freedom
and relaxation. The verbal component is secondary to the visual
effects but it is not totally secondary to the possible meanings
of the poem. The process of crossing out a text is another way
of writing. The ink, the letters, the black color in contrast
with the white space, the frames, the rectangular forms, suggest
an unease continuity between creation and interpretation, between
limits and freedom. This action of crossing out a text suggests
also a fight against the power given to the printed page, and
the printed world. Another interpretation of this practice is
the repressive Spanish social context Millán was living
in. Millán has created other visual poems similar to this
one but using the color of Spanish flag that gives the reader
a very clear context he wants to fight against. In the Franco
regime Millán was fighting for freedom of speech. Millán
was making visual and discursive poems denouncing the political
situation of Franco regime, and in general, any oppressive power.
Another poem that serves as an example is his poem in form of
a cup made with the word "represión" in the
section "Ideogramas n.o." in Poemas N.O. His
anti-institutional art, and intentions to close the distances
between life and art, are still alive today. 5
Without having access to today's technology these artists living
in the Franco regime wanted more freedom to change their world
and the poetic language. In those poetic experiments they included
daily iconography, the element of chance, improvisation, new
painting theories, and the idea of work in progress. The Brazilian
Concrete poets, the European avant-garde artists, and later in
the sixties the North American experimental artists such as John Cage and his musical
experiments, artists such as Man Ray and the photomontage, and
Marcel Duchamp with his visual works were also a big influence
in their works. In this environment Spanish experimental poets
such as Carles Sindreu, Joan Brossa, Francisco Pino, Fernando
Millán, José-Miguel Ullán, and others were
producing different types of experimental poems.6
Many artists, and critics have been trying to explain and categorize
the different experimental works. One such study is the one done
by Fernández Serrato (1997) who establishes five general
typologies of experimental poems based upon textures, forms,
and to a lesser degree color: "poema minimalista" a
very basic and graphic poem, "poema verbal-visual"
a poem that has a strong interaction between images and words,
"poema-propuesta" that proposes aesthetic actions,
"poema-acción", similar to the happening, and
"poema permutacional" based upon the variation-permutation
of verbal or/and plastic elements with the possibility of a phonetic
Visual poetry is a term that is being more accepted when talking
about experimental visual works. Visual poetry is not a recent
practice but a common poetic avant-garde expression in Spain.
At the beginning of the twentieth century we can mention the
futurist Catalan poet, writing in Catalan, Joan Salvat-Papasseit,
the ultraists Guillermo de Torre, Juan Larrea, Federico de Iribarne,
Gerardo Diego and others. Today, one of the most recent antecedents
of Visual poetry is the Italian Visive poetry from the sixties
(1963-1968), and Inismo that comes from the terms Internazionale
Novatrice Infinitesimale. Inismo was founded in Paris and Rome
early in 1980 by Gabriele Aldo Bertozzinnos and Laura Aga-Rossi
and today is a popular practice in Spain and Latin American countries.
8 Today Inismo is visual poetry but also action poetry, video
poems, sculpture poems, and sound poetry. One of the common characteristics
of Inismo is to produce object-poetry, a concept that the surrealist
André Breton defined in his classical book Le Surréalisme
et la Peinture (1966) as a composition that combines resources
from poetry and sculpture speculating about their power of exaltation.
Inists recognize Verlaine for liberating the verse, Mallarmé
for liberating the word, Rimbaud for liberating the letter, and
Marinetti and the futurists for liberating the phoneme. Sound
Ini artists such as Angelo Merante, make sound poetry compositions
scored with the international phonetic alphabet, an Inist innovation
in sound poetry (Seaman). 9
In Spain there are different regional artistic groups that are
considered to be Inistas. In 1986 the magazine Graphe Koine
was created in Madrid and directed by Francisco Juan Molero Prior
who was also the founder of Spanish Inismo, and coordinator of
other Spanish groups that were coming out in the nineties such
as "Auxilios Mutuos" y "El paraíso"
both groups from Asturias. In 1991, the Catalan Juan Borda created
a group inista in Catalonia. In 1992 the Vasque group "Zeine"
was created. The Gallician group directed by Pedro González
who publishes the literary magazine Vértice
was also created in 1992. They all work with different languages,
not only writing, but painting, sculpture, sound, video, architecture,
and film to produce an art more universal and free. Their two
basic principles are infinitude and universalism. They develop
old ideas originated in the historical avant-gardes and incorporate
the use of new technological advances.
Before 1900 Visual poetry was also a common practice among different
cultures. The oldest known example comes from Ancient Egypt more
than 3000 years ago. This is a poem written in crosswords. Other
civilizations such as the Islamic, Chinese, and the Indian have
image poems where words, letters or lines make visual images
that imitate objects and symbols from their daily life. This
practice was also a visual art in the Orient and Mesoamerica.
In Europe visual poetic practices were frequent before 17th to
19th centuries. We can see now that the 19th and 20th century
didn't invent visual poetry. Calligrams and other experiments
were invented much before Apollinaire and contemporary poets.
(Dick Higgins, 1978) 10
Visual poetry today includes not only old experiments but also
technological innovations like the use of photography, graphic
design, mail-art, video poetry, and techniques used in films.
Body language, kinetic art, and performance poetry are part of
visual poetry too. In Spain visual poetry was a men's world but
we can mention a few Catalan visual women poets such as Montserrat
Felip (wife of Guillem Viladot) with visual works made in 1948.
Another visual woman poet is Eugenia Balcells, Antítesi
visual, (1981) or Teresa Hereus, Antilogia Visual,
(1992). According to Xavier Canals (1999) these visual women
poets present some inherent qualities, a different poetic and
visual synthesis from the one made by male visual artists. 11
Other Spanish women visual poets that are working today are Julia
Otxoa, Nieves Salvador, María Jesús Montía,
Angela Serna, Belén Juárez, etc.
Other experimental poets today in Spain are using the voice,
the body language, noises, vocal and guttural sounds, words,
and music to create a poem. These artists are Sound poets. Sound
poets use technology, humor, phonetic techniques, and different
kind of noises in an experimental way. This practice has its
antecedents in the fifties when the famous French artist and
critic Henri Chopin produced with the tape-recorder, multilayered
works "vocal micro-particles" and "bucca instances",
which he called poésie sonore. Chopin has many
audiopems, but also he was adding new technology to his sound
poetry through the years. He works with multilineal texts. One
of his poems in the nineties uses electronic explorations of
the voice, voice texture, vibrations of the larynx, joined by
effective use of the tape-recorder and electronics. It includes
a booklet in four languages with graphic reproductions of typewriter
Polipoetry is another experimental poetic practice that gives
preference to Sound poetry. In some senses the terms Polipoetry
and Sound poetry are equivalent. The Italian Enzo Minarelli is
the author of the First Manifest of Polipoetry, (1987). He believes
in the use of new technologies for a progressive art. The first
manifest of Polipoetry prioritizes the sound over the letter,
thinking of language as rhythm.12 Polipoetry is especially practiced
in Spanish but most of these practices and performances are part
of the underground cultures. These artists have a counterculture
program and travel all over the world giving performances. These
poets exploit the sound as their weapon to produce an aesthetic
effect but also to criticize the capitalistic culture of mass
production. Our time and values are seen under the sign of production,
The Catalan Xavier Sabater, born in 1953, is one Spanish polipoet.
His book of polipoetry Saba-Sanyo-Casio (1992)
includes a cassette with his readings and special intonations.
The book is written mainly in Spanish, but also in Catalan. It
is a book against multinationals, mercantilism, high art, and
ecclesiastical discourses which are written in false Latin. He
uses a variety of techniques and strategies to make the audience
and reader laugh and think. Some of his polipoems include a counter
advertising technique, collages, montage, scores, comics, photographs,
graphic design, and repetition of words or sentences. He thinks
language is political, so he composes poetry to break the high
culture canons to be closer to any person. He wants to democratize
culture and art fighting against dominant powers. His sense of
humor is ironic and has a critical effect. One written example
of his poetry is the poem "Saba-Sanyo-Casio" written
in the eighties. He uses a language internationally known, but
these poems must be listened to capture the effects of the intonation
of his voice.
E/MACDONALDS/KENTUCKY FRIED CHICKEN
iiEO PRESTO!! GALLINA BLANCA
ROLAND, KORG, YAHAMAHA
IBM, AMSTRAD, APPEL
FORD, SEAT, WOLSWAGEN
PHILIPS, PHILIPS, GALLINA BLANCA
NYLON, NYLON, TERGAL
IBM, IBM, TELEFUNKEN
PSOE, PSOE, UCD
CDS, CDS, ETA-ETA-ETA
KRISHNA, KRISHNA, KRISHNA
TELEFUNKEN, IBM, REPSOL
ETIOPlA, ETIOPIA, ETIOPIA
TELEFUNKEN, IBM, CASIO
NYLON, TERGAL, CHIVAS
PREISLER, PREISLER, ISABEL
ETIOPlA, ETIOPIA, ETIOPIA
KAS, PEPSI-COLA, COCA COLA
This is a socio-political poem. It is also a very impersonal
poem that uses the technique of counter advertising to attack
the powerful multinationals, and the language of advertising
with its slogans, bombarding us everyday. It is a very effective
and corrosive poem that uses internationally known telegraphic
messages. The technique of catalogue has a degrading effect.
When reading the poem instead of feeling attracted to purchase
those products, we feel bombarded by the mass media with all
kinds of propaganda. At the same time social problems such as
Etiopía, AIDS, Cancer, Eta are today's Spanish popular
Sabater composes video poetry, and cyberpoetry too. The cyberpoem:
"I am" (Yo soy) lasts for about 4 minutes. In this
very simple and open-ended poem, sound and animation form the
message "I am". Most of his poems are counter advertising
poems. Sabater uses irony against conventional discourses. In
other poems he uses vulgar, and offensive expressions to defeat
the system. Sabater uses a counter cultural background to reject
institutionalized aesthetic and political values. He sees his
work being influenced by punk culture, by John Fante, Celine,
Miller, Bukowsky, Villon, the Beat generation, and the rappers.
In his performances he uses distortional microphones, and shows
slides as components of his artistic performance. He pays special
attention to denouncing the official culture, and our passive
way of life in which we accept almost anything that is sent to
us through the mass media. He has published several books of
poems and has participated in National and International Polipoetry
festivals: Barcelona, Zaragoza, Madrid, Victoria, Oviedo, Germany
Portugal, and Italy. He also edited Polipoesía. Primera
Antología in 1992 that includes a tape with the poet's
voices using different intonations to produce different reactions.
The eight Spanish authors selected in this anthology are: Llorenç
Barber, J. M. Calleja, Enric Casassas, Bartolomé
Ferrando, Carles Hac Mor, Fátima Miranda, Josep Ramón
Roig, and Xavier Sabater.
Most of the polipoets selected in that anthology are musicians
and art critics like Llorenç Barber and Bartolomé
Ferrando. They do performance poetry, sound poetry and phonetic
poetry. Fátima Miranda is a specialist of music interpretation.
In the musical group "Taller de Música Mundana"
(1979), she improvised with her voice and explored the sounds
of different objects such as stones, and paper. Later on she
worked for "Flatus Vocis Trío" (1986) composed
by Llorenc Barber, Bartolomé Ferrando and Fátima.
This group was doing phonetic poetry in a surrealistic tradition.
Several years later she studied the Druphad song with its multiple
modalities and microtones that survive from the 17th century
by oral transmission and in 1991 she composed "Las Voces
de la Voz." In 1995 she published "Concierto en canto"
and in 1998 she produced "Arte Sonado" which is a superb
expression of vocalic sounds supported by amplification without
electronic manipulation. Fátima works with unconventional
scores that have hundreds of notes, graphemes, pictograms, poetic-descriptive
explanations, and vignettes.
Fátima receives inspiration from everyday sounds, advertisements,
daily life objects, but also from oral traditions. With her voice
she doesn't pretend to invent a new art, but is coming back to
the source. In the beginning, even before writing was invented,
it was the sound and the song. The sound was the first way of
communication in the more primitive cultures. Musical instruments
came later as an extension of our breath. In Polipoesía.
Primera Antología, Fátima mentions the first
acoustic expressions from different cultures, for example, the
old Buddhist psalmody of Shomyo's song where each syllable is
amplified without paying attention to the lack of meaning. The
empty syllables of the Chinese Opera, the "Hyhy" from
Egypt, the polyphonies from the pygmies in Central Africa, the
Galician "aturuxos", the Gomeran "whistle",
the unintelligible interjections of No Song, etc. Her sound poetry
is very irrational, focusing on the repetition of specific sounds,
and using silence as an important component of her experiments.
J. M. Calleja's poetry is more visual. He has published several
books of visual poetry, and has given performances all over Europe.
In his poem "Duets" numbers are written in Catalan
letters and ordered in a single vertical column. The author follows
Poe's notion of "Spasm Poem" where inner time and not
external time is what really gives meaning to our life. He echoes
the medieval Catalan Ramon Llull and his study about the symbology
of numbers. He wants to give a plastic quality to poems written
with numbers. Calleja participated in the Mostra Poesía
Intersignios Brazil, 1998. Some of his works are in the electronic
magazine Brazilitalia http://www.pucsp.br/~cos-puc/epe/mostra/calleja.htm.
In this web site there are videopoems, sound-poetry, written
poems, object-books, and interactive poems.
Philadelpho Menezes (1960-2000) --a literary critic, a professor
at two universities in Brazil, a poet, a multimedia artist, and
organizer of the "I Mostra International de Poesia Visual
de Sao Paulo (1988)"-- points out that what is important
in the use of new technologies in experimental poetry is the
integration between languages and a fusion of all literary genres
where poetry can penetrate theory, short stories, etc., without
having to prioritize the verbal signs. 14 Another critic of the
new avant-gardes is Renato Barilli who in an interview with Philadelpho
Menezes (1998) talks about the democratization of the new experimental
poetry thanks to the multimedia.15
The Argentinean poet Fabio Doctorovich in his electronic project
Abysm talks about the possibilities of hypertext in poetry,
and gives us examples of his poetry which is a fusion of visual,
and three-dimensional signs. The bi-dimensional relationship
the letter had in the written word is now expanded to a forth-dimensional
world where there is almost an infinite series of possibilities
for new meanings with a few signs. For the Uruguayan critic Clemente
Padín an experimental poem: "it must question the
significant structure of the expressive system used by the author,
in order to create new information. It must have a radical semiologic
project trying to invent a new writing or reading code. An experimental
poem must manipulate the signs used in the poem." 16
In Spain in the last years there has been an increasing number
of visual poetry anthologies such as Poesía experimental
93 (1993), El color en la poesía visual. Antología
consultada por José Carlos Beltrán (2001),
Poesía visual valenciana (2001), Phayum, poéticas
visuales, (2000), Aldea Poética II. Poesía
en acción (2000), Poesía visual española
ante el Nuevo milenio, (1999). These anthologies present
the work of visual poets such as J. M. Calleja, Xavier Canals,
Joaquín Gómez, Carles H. Mor, Xavier Seoane, Josep
Sou, Gustavo Vega, César Reglero, Angela Serna, Antoni
Albalat, Nieves Salvador, Isabel Jover, Tomás Camacho,
Jose Luis Campal, Joaquín Gómez, Antonio Orihuela,
Antón Reixa, José Carlos Beltrán, Bartolomé
Ferrando, etc. Some artists like Gustavo Vega still keep the
interrelation word-image in their visual poems, but other artists
consider collages visual poetry and go beyond the basic idea
of visual poetry as an art where words and images are present.
They exceed the limits of historic movements such as concretism
or lettrisme for example, giving priority to an image-to-image
relation. All of them use a wide variety of techniques and motives
to that come from the
language of publicity such as telegraphic images, clichés,
repetitions of words, from the mass media, painting, graphic
Joaquín Gómez: "País". Poesía
One of the visual poets selected in Poesía Experimental
93 is Joaquín Gómez'. His work "País"
is a very meaningful collage composed with parts of the Picasso's
"Guernica", and with daily life objects such as the
soccer lottery (la quiniela), its symbol the soccer ball, and
the three of hearts in the Spanish cards (symbolizing also love).
The title "País" and the objects used to (re)
present Spain have an implicit and controversial discourse: The
unity and identity of the country called Spain. He links popular
sports and activities such soccer, the National sport, playing
cards, and Bullfights with the political element and the artistic
one. Gómez recreates old topics about Spain, but also
incorporates the language of painting, and more specifically
cubism and Picasso as a motive of the collage. Cubism is an experimental
art, but at the same time serves as a historical reference "Guernica".
Picasso's bull and "Guernica" echoes the Spanish Civil
War, the fratricidal violence. The bull also represents one of
our historic traditions, which serves as an emblem of our country,
and even after Franco's regime is still a tourist attraction.
Soccer, the most popular sport, and playing cards are important
symbols that portray Spanish folklore. We have an ekphrastic
visual work, and at the same time we can see how experimental
art can be committed to social problems, and daily life without
loosing its capacity to generate aesthetic meanings. The title
"País" is also reinforced with the word "Estado"
which has connotations with the Franco's regime. The interrelation
between words and images is present in these two words that work
as a verbal frame for the visual poem. As we see, in
this poem there is a functional relation between different languages,
and discourses at work.
Many other visual artists reflect on these and other motives
in relation to Spain, such as Fernando Millán in his NO
Poems, José Carlos Beltrán in poems like "España,
España" in A todo riesgo. We see the controversial
subject about Monarchy in Ferrán Costa "Juan Carlos
I, Rey de España 2 Resultat Final" and in Raúl
Gálvez "En el país de los calvos, el Rey lleva
peluquín" both works in Poesía Visual Valenciana.
Xavier Canals: "Homenatge a Jack Kerouac".
Poesía Experimental 93
Xavier Canals' collage "Homenatge a Jack Kerouak"
is a metaliterary text. This visual poem uses literature and
nature as an inspirational motif. The road is simulating the
same form of the feather. The topic of the road as a text is
a classic one. The rhetorical question "To write?"
provokes the reader to reflexionate about the very essence of
writing. The title "Homenatge a Kerouak" is an obvious
reference to the art of writing, to the Beat Generation, and
their ideals, which are still a strong influence for some underground
Spanish poets. In this visual poem Art is considered more a process
than a product. The road, like the text, is an open road, the
feather like the pen, gives us the impression of freedom, spontaneity,
and joy. Art is projected in terms of pleasure. Many other visual
poets incorporate different artistic references to show the necessary
interconnection between the arts: Music (José Carlos Beltrán
in "Poemajonda"), Graphic Design (Ferrán Costa,
Fco Pérez Belda), Photography (Regina Balbastre García,
Josep Sou: "Fal.luscrácia".
Poesía Experimental 93.
Josep Sou's "Fal.luscrácia" is a visual poem
with a clear denouncing purpose. The graphic poem with seven
"men" in ties, and bow ties depict the intention of
the title: A society governed by a male dominant power. The phallus,
and the ties also represent the tyranny of several powers, like
the political power, and the businessmen. The title has a double
meaning. The word Democracy is the subtext of Fal.luscracia,
which comes from the Greek suffix kratos or government.
The title, and the vertical disposition of the icons suggest
a strong hierarchic world. It suggests that the actual Democracy
doesn't exist. The title and the image refer directly to another
subject that is sex and men. But the sexual content of the poem
is subordinated to the social meaning. There is an obvious political
content and intentions of denouncing the tyranny of political
and economical power that come from the men's world.
Other authors selected in Poesía Experimental 93
denounce publicist firms that exploit female bodies to sell products.
One example is José Criado's "Enjoy Costa Blanca"
with a photograph of four naked girls and the sentence "Ideal
fun for the family". In this visual poem his ironic sense
of humor subverts the Coca-Cola ads, and in general any kind
of product. This photograph criticizes the increasing commercialization
of our society that alienates the human being in favor of materialistic
interests. Another visual poem is "Serie Ilimitada"
by José Luis Campal that is similar to a Colgate add.
With these explicit counter-advertising messages these poets
are continuing a long tradition born at the beginning of the
century. Also, some of these artists are fans of the Beat Generation
artists like Jack Kerouack, and at the same time they appreciate
computer art. Their uniqueness is to use different languages
--publicity, literature, painting, graphic design-- as their
own artistic expression, which is mostly non-verbal, using the
same mechanisms publicity does to create an antipublicist message.
There are good selections of experimental poetry on the Internet
site, "Arquivo de poesia experimental" has an alphabetical
index that shows and gives reference to selected works of experimental
poetry available in the "Biblioteca Reitora Nadir Gouvêa
Kfouri da PUC", in Sâo Paulo. In this Brazilian site
there are Spanish multimedia artists such as Xavier Canals, Javier
Darias, and Antonio L. Bouza. Bouza has a visual poem "Ginepoema
4". In this visual poem O and Y are letters that give the
appearance of a female body. These are the only two letters of
the poem. With the special alignment of O and Y we can visualize
a female body with ovaries (symbolizing the potential for life,
for all letters, for all poems). The title "Ginepoema"
Gine (greek prefix that means women) prioritizes the special
relation between poetry and women in its potential for creation
of meanings, creation of bodies and creation of life.
Performance Poetry offers in its oral delivery, and visual techniques
a sense of immediacy, spontaneity, and uniqueness like Electronic
Poetry does in its more experimental poems.16 Most of the new
avant-garde Spanish artists are using both performance and computers
to reach a broader audience expanding the limits of the written
text. There have been thousands of performances in Spain, in
the last ten years, especially in Catalonia.
Antón Reixa is a Gallician multimedia artist (a musician,
ex-professor of literature, a poet, a performer, a show opera
writer, a critic) who writes experimental poetry in Gallician
and Spanish language. There are surrealistic elements in his
poems. He uses Italian, Spanish, English, and German as literary,
political, artistic and popular references. In his performances
he uses sounds, mimic, and pictures provoking the audience against
the mass media, the religious discourses, and against any political
law without democratic intentions. He is a very creative and
original artist that plays with classical literature; opera and
popular culture like show operas and films to engage his audience.
His texts give the impression of spontaneity touching multiple
daily life motives, and his performance accelerates the already
rapid pace of the poems. His sense of humor is a very critical
one. He denounces the First World governments for their self-interested
In 1992 Reixa published Ringo Rango, a book of visual
poems with paintings by other artists that includes a video performance.
This textbook is a collection of poems written for different
artists between 1978 and 1988. One of the leitmotivs of this
book is to demystify high and pop culture, and to produce an
art for the common people. The first section's title is "Como
escribir en público." It has poems with reference
to Tagore: "Biografia contra Tagore", to Petrarca:
"Apoloxía do petrarquismo barra Decreto-lei",
to Joyce "sober joyce no 80 anos vello de s. beckett"
and at the same time poems dedicated to anonymous people such
as "Lied für túa prima." The complexity
of his works allows him to write at different levels for any
kind of public. The funny poem "A vaca de Martin Heidegger"
permits him to associate "cow", which is vaca in Gallician,
to Lauren Bacal because of phonetic similarities. The author
criticizes every power by making us laugh using surrealistic
associations, the repetition of several words, and the constant
change of motives. Another type of poems selected in this book
is the eckfrastic poem. There are poems dedicated to different
paintings and painters. He minimizes the syntactical expression,
he works to create a quick rhythm of verbal images with a sense
of urgency. His experimentalism comes in the form of a confluence
of literary, and social motives. One example is this fragment
of the poem (tempo):
hai mulleres hebreas que non aman ós sábados
comprendo que hai homes de patria excesiva
e aínda así non se entende o que che quero dicir
pero vin TV a noite toda e ó espertar almorcei cereais:
aínda así non era americano
hai palabras encadenadas ó silencio
pero ben sei por palestino que o silencio está escrito
ver e non tocar reclamas deitada en territorio ocupado
-na información deportiva intercalarán documentais
disturbios nos territories ocupados-
así que non te me poñas hebrea
e non reacciones como unha cebra nun paso de cebra
verso n. 20: é como se tivesen pasado 48 horas
In this fragment of the poem "(tempo)" belonging
to section "4x20", Reixa brings immediacy with an acute
sense of humor. There is also criticism, and irony when talking
about social events, like Palestine, Sports, TV news and the
anonymity of the daily life watching TV, and eating cereals without
having to be an American. The poetic voice is very aware of the
dominant power of the mass media in our daily lives. This and
other poems written and performed by Reixa are social poems reflecting
our system' deficiencies.
The poem "(mar)" "(see)" in the section "4x20"
is another text that subverts various literary cannons and confronts
social problems. The title in parenthesis, and in small letters
is a common strategy used by the poet to break the academic and
orthographic rules. The parenthesis of the title also means that
reading is optional. The absence of periods, commas, and capital
letters is another rebellious license he uses:
hai un mar de tan cursi literario
dunha princesa que lle esvarou un acuario nas mans
que se lle escachou mecachis
ese non interesa
(hai un silencio de 14 versos)
verso n. 20: no mar acaban as nacións pero hai centolas
que son francesas
This poem gives the impression of spontaneity because it uses
conversational expressions such as "que se lle escachou
mecachis" ("it broke dam") but it is a very well
elaborated poem. Fishers today are not free to fish beyond their
sea's frontiers: "no mar acaban as nacións pero hai
centolas/ que son francesas" ("Nations finish on the
sea but there are spider crab/ that are French"). The poetic
voice also criticizes literary styles that seem ridiculous because
they are too distant from daily life. In the first two lines
"hai un mar de tan cursi literario/ dunha princesa que lle
esvarou un acuario nas mans" ("there is a sea that
for being so snob is literary/of a princess whose aquarium escaped
in her hands") the lyrical voice makes a derogatory comparison
between a literary and stylized sea and the social problematic
of the people living in the coast of Gallicia. He evoques the
Modernism of Rubén Darío or other Modernist authors
in his use of "princesses", and in the reference to
lines of 14 syllables, the called "versos alejandrinos"
typical modernist line: "(hai un silencio de 14 versos)"
"(there is a silence of 14 lines)".
In conclusion we can say that there is a strong connection and
continuity between new experimental poetry and historical avant-gardes.
Although today there are different projects, and sometimes opposite
intentions among different experimental poetic groups, in general,
we can state that there is a tendency for all new experimental
poets to continue integrating and exploring new interrelations
between different artistic languages (music, painting, sculpture,
films, writing, architecture) creating a supranational art that
in most of the cases is the result of the evolution of a technological
Experimental poets in Spain and in other countries too continue
altering syntax, orthography, morphology, and semantics to explore
with a variety of topics. They mix languages, and genres in such
a way that classical categories of poetry, and art, are not valid
to define experimental poetry. We know from historical experimental
poets that the notion of gender as a model does not apply in
avant-garde poetry. We need a very inclusive notion of poetry
when studying experimental poetry.
We have to say that new experimental poets in Spain, especially
visual poets, in the nineties are having some accreditation.
Different workshops, conferences, and educational projects have
been a common practice in different autonomical regions, for
example the program "Juan de Mairena de la Consejería
de Educación de Andalucía" in 1991. But there
are still some obstacles. Many works are not published or are
published in very small editorials, or exhibited in temporary
collections, not reaching the general public yet because of the
lack of money, or interest.
New multimedia artists are not interested in producing an atemporal
art, but a universal art for today's audience. They use TV, music,
and mass media references as part of our immediate reality to
reflect on emptiness as a critical sign of our times: Bosnia,
the Middle East, Gender issues, Marginal peoples, ethnic and
religious subjects, the materialistic way of life, commerce and
globalization, and many other political, artistic and cultural
discourses. In some of their criticism experimental poets are
not far away from conventional poets who are still using traditional
forms of diction to criticize our system. In this sense, traditional
and experimental poets are immersed in a common context but they
choose different formats to express their interaction with the
world. Multimedia artists focus more on the technologies available
to have more freedom to interact with their audience or perceivers.
They want to reach their audience using irony, surprise, ludicrous
intentions and a mixture of different daily life motives.
Performers, the computerized artists, the phonetic and sound
poets want to produce a popular and creative art by using non
literary elements. Some performers and phonetic poets continue
using electro-acoustic methods while rescuing and presenting
elements from oral traditions. New experimental poets mix different
genres to empty the conventional value of the signs. They want
to create a more spontaneous poem liberated from rigid rules,
and from our usual associative thought mechanisms. Surrealists
did that too, but today experimental poets don't believe in originality,
neither do they have an exclusive corresponding pattern of semantic
Experimental poetry requires a new understanding of what is poetry.
Articulated and unarticulated signs form a language of their
own, so the new receptors of these works have to participate
with a very open mind and disposition. Experimental artists don't
believe in the autonomy of a specific artistic expression or
language. Their ludicrous syncretism shows an iconoclastic attitude
towards the conventional arts. The new syntax, product of the
multiplicity, and juxtaposition of artistic languages, establishes
a new perception, a new rhetoric, a new relation between the
author and the moment the "text" it is being read,
seen or/and listened to. The new aesthetic and political avant-gardes
are challenging traditional concepts that originated in Romanticism
such as the notion of individualism, the artist as a special
human being, and the idea of art as a private privilege. Spanish
experimental poets, like other artists, work towards the globalization
of their art, which is becoming more technological and available
to everyone thanks to technology.
New experimental poets continue expanding aesthetic values. The
old slogan "art for art's sake" that some historical
avant-garde artists used to believe in is still in practice today
by some movements but there is also a social commitment, which
is an intrinsic aspect of some experimental poets. Today in Spain,
new poets, and artists in general, produce their artistic works
balancing both values (art for art's sake, and social commitment).
This is a complicated practice considering the diversity of genres
they are using. Probably because of the cultural context of structural
and formal discontinuity we are living in, experimental poetry,
in its different expressions, is still at the beginning of producing
some radical changes in our conventional aesthetic values. Although
is still too early to give a historical perspective on these
experimental practices we can see that the implications of challenging
regular discursive practices as well as conventional poetic processes
are the first steps to create a new foundational artistic language
that is destined to be a living experience.
. Sven Birkerts writes about the effects of technology and
writing in The Gutenberg Elegies. The Fate of Reading in an
Electronic Age (1994).
 .Landow explores the implications of hypertext, and hypermedia
in literature. Here are some selected passages: The origin of
the term hypertext is coined by Theodor H. Nelson in the 1960s,
and refers to a form of electronic text. By `hypertext' Nelson
explains, "I mean non sequential writing text that branches
and allows chances to the reader, best read at an interactive
screen.  Since hypertext, which links a passage of verbal discourse
to images, maps, diagrams, and sounds as easily to another verbal
passage, expands the notion of text beyond the solely verbal.
Texts are experienced as multilinear or multisequential  hypertexts
are composed of bodies of linked texts that have no primary axis
of organization.  Every sign in this virtual world, linguistic
or non-linguistic, spoken or written can be cited, put between
quotation marks. The implication of such citability and separability
appears in the fact crucial to hypertext as Derrida ads, "in
so doing it can break with every given context, engendering an
infinity of new contexts in a manner which is absolutely illimitable."
 Hypertext provides an infinitely re-centering system whose
provisional point of focus depends upon the reader, who becomes
a truly active reader. Hypertext blurs the distinction between
what is "inside" and "outside" a text. There
is also an erosion of the self. Hypermedia linking automatically
produces collaboration. A form of hypertextual literary form
involves parataxis produced by repetition rather than sequence.
Parataxis is where thematic units can be added or omitted without
destroying the coherence of effect of the poem's thematic structure.
Variations of a theme are the most obvious form that paratactic
structure may take. (3-106)
Another interesting author is Richard Andersen. In "Hypertext
Notes" Ejournal, 1996 he talks about the role of
the author versus the role of the editor. The text becomes a
chain of texts. The hypertext presents entirely new possibilities.
The natural mode of hypertext is compilation rather than linear
creation. Reading hypertexts is associated with spatial reasoning
ability. Others actually exploit the hypertext, but some of those
echo the linear experience of traditional (paper) text. One scholar
notes that "one is reminded of the incunabula period of
the book trade, during which books were printed to look as much
like manuscripts as possible." (Doug Brent. "Stevan
Harnad's 'Subversive Proposal" V1N5 [June 1995])
. A good study about historical avant-gardes is Miguel D'Ors
El caligrama, de Simmias a Apollinaire. Historia de una tradición
clásica (1977). Also Armando de Zárate
Antes de la vanguardia/Historia y morfología de la
experimentación visual: de Teócrito a la
poesía concreta, and Xavier Canals "Músicapoesía
visual, ¿intersección o intercomunicación?
Reflexiones alrededor de una exposición" Catalogue
I Jornades Internacionals de Nova Música, 1982-83.
Fundación Joan Miró (Centre d'Estudis d'Art Contemporani)
. "La Palingénesis de la Vanguardia" (1997)
extracted from Analecta (1996) by Stewart Home is a social
study on the historical and new Avant-Gardes. wysiwyg://7/http://www.terra.es/pesonal2/lutherblissett/homenn.htm
. In 1997 Fernando Millán published Poemas N.O,
with poems, proses, ideograms, texts+cross outs, and an annex
that includes a letter manifest written in 1968 concerning the
exhibitions they did in the late sixties on avant-garde poetry,
concrete, phonic, visual, and spatial poetry. To know more about
the N.O. group and the Spanish avant-gardes is useful to read
the interview between Fernando Millán and Chema de Francisco
Guinea: "La poesía experimental en España.
Entrevista con Fernando Millán" Espéculo
6, 1997. http://www.ucm.es/info/especulo/numero6/millan.htm
. To have a historical background of the avant-garde poetry
in Spain read Fernando Millán's conversations with Chema
de Francisco "Vanguardias y vanguardismos ante el siglo
This is an essential historical study of all the movements, names
and personal context of the experimental artists in Spain in
the XX century from the perspective of an experimental artist.
. A very serious study, critical and well referenced by Fernando
Serrato "La poesía experimental en España.
Algunas conclusiones." 1997. He considers Fernando Millán
the most outstanding theorist of the experimental poetry in Spain
as well one of the best experimental poets. But Serrato does
not see much originality now in the Spanish avant-garde practices
neither in the European and Western civilization of the 20th
century: "Lo que queda claro, desde la experiencia del experimentalismo
poético es que las convenciones estéticas dominantes
en Occidente parecen estar anquilosadas, institucionalizadas
en un dudoso conservadurismo que aún cree en lo sublime
como el garante de una cierta aristocracia estética."
8. A good introduction about Inismo is "El Inismo Español
y Argentino" (24 Ag. 1994 first published in La Juventud,
sección Culturales by Laura Aga Rossi http://www.artepostal.org.mx/movimientos/inismo.html.
David W. Seaman has another brief article on Inismo "Italy's
Newest Poetic Avant-Garde: Inismo" http://www.angelfire.com/ar/inismo/seaman.html.
Philadelpho Menezes's historical and critical article http://www.exmadrid.com/~poexperiment/b211menezesexpe.htm
is essential to understand the evolution of Inismo.
. David Seaman in his article "Italy's Newest Poetic
Avant-Garde: Inismo" is a good introductory reference about
the essence of Inismo. http://www.angelfire.com/ar/inismo/seaman.html
. The importance of Dick Higgin's comparative studies on
visual poetry is one of the first works that shows hundreds of
visual poems from old civilizations. A Dialectic of Centuries:
Notes Towards a Theory of New Arts. (1978), and Pattern
Poetry: Guide of Unknown Literature (1987). Related to this
topic see Karl Kempton's trans. by César Espinosa "Poesía
Visual: Definiciones, contexto y problemas de tipología"
there is a http://www.exmadrid.com/~poexperiment/a8kemptonpoevisl.htm.
. Xavier Canals "La poesia visual de les dones catalanes,
XXXab/ una XXXsencia/ XXXpre" http://www.cornermag.org/corner02/page03.htm
is a good document with important references and works on avant-garde
Catalan women visual poets.
. The next document is the First Manifest of Polipoetry
written by the Italian Enzo Minarelli. http://www.iii.it/3vitre/saggi/emanif.htm
1996. This document was published for the first time in the catalogue
Tramesa d'Art. Valencia. Spain, 1987:
1. Only the development of the new technologies will mark the
progress of sound poetry: the electronic media and the computer
are and will be the true protagonists.
2. The object "language" must be increasingly investigated
in its smallest and largest parts: the word, basis of sound experimentation,
takes the characters of multi-word, broken into its inner body,
restitched at its exterior. The word must be able to free its
own manifold sonorities.
3. The exploitation of sound has no limits. It must be carried
beyond the border of pure noise, a signifying noise: linguistic
and oral ambiguity has a sense only if it completely uses the
instrument of the mouth.
4. The recovery of the sense of time (the minute, the second),
apart from the laws of harmony and disharmony, because only through
editing is the right parameter of synthesis and balance and balance
5. Language is rhythm. Tone values are real vectors of meaning:
first an act of rationality, then an act of emotion.
6. Polypoetry is devised and realized for the live show; it gives
to sound poetry the role of prima donna or starting point to
link relations with musicality (accompaniment or rhythmic line),
mimicry, movement, and dance (acting or extension or integration
of the sound text), image (television or slide projection, picture
or installation, by association, explanation or alternative and
redundance), light, space, costumes and objects.
. In Polipoesía. Primera Antología (pg.
65-67), Fátima names different oral traditions and the
importance of the human voice as part of our human essence. Fátima
Miranda's phonetic work has been studied by composers, musicologists,
performers and critics such as Henri Chopin, and Llorenc Barber,
who wroted a very detailed introduction about her work as a sound
poet, a performer and a phonetic poet for his Arte Sonado
. Philadelpho Menezes. "Poesia Intersignos. Do impresso
ao sonoro ao digital." 1998. http://www.pucsp.br/~cos-puc/epe/mostra/catalogo.htm.
. In "Entrevista de Philadelpho Menezes com Renato Barilli."
São Paulo, 02 de maio de 1998. http://www.pucsp.br/~cos-puc/epe/mostra/barilli.htm.
Clemente Padín studies the new poetic avant-gardes from
a political and aesthetic perspective, especially in Latin America.
A brief article that summarizes what is an avant-garde poem is
"Vanguardia y experimentación poética"
. Bartolomé Ferrando in " La Performance como
explains the difference between performance and happening. In
the performance the public participates. Happening doesn't require
action or physical participation from the public.
Andersen, Richard. "Hypertext Notes" Ejournal,
1996 vol. 6 n.3. http://www.hanover.edu/philos/ejournal/archive/v6n3/ej-6-3.txt
(4 May 2000).
Barilli, Renato. "Entrevista de Philadelpho Menezes com
São Paulo, 1998. http://www.pucsp.br/~cos-puc/epe/mostra/barilli.htm.
(11 June 2000).
Beltrán, José Carlos. Poesía visual española
ante el Nuevo milenio. Vitoria-Gasteiz: Arteragin, Spain,
Beltrán, José Carlos, and Ferrando, Bartolomé.
Poesía visual valenciana. Valencia: Rialla
edit. Spain, 2001.
Beltrán, José Carlos, and Ferrando, Bartolomé.
Phayum, poéticas visuales, Castellón: Spain,
Bustamante, Antonio Pastor. (coord..) Aldea Poética
II. Poesía en acción. Madrid: Opera Prima,
Birkerts, Sven. The Gutenberg Elegies. The Fate of Reading
in an Electronic Age. Faber and Faber: Boston and London,
Breton, André. Le Surréalisme et la Peinture.
Paris: Gallimard, 1965.
Bürger, Peter. Theory of the Avant-Garde. Trans.
Michael Shaw. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984
Canals, Xavier. "La poesia visual de les dones catalanes,/
XXXab/ una XXXsencia./ XXXpre." 1999. http://www.cornermag.org/corner02/page03.htm
(5 May 2000).
_________ . "Música poesía visual, ¿intersección
o intercomunicación? Reflexiones alrededor de una exposición"
Catalogue I Jornades Internacionals de Nova Música
1982-83. Fundación Joan Miró (Centre d'Estudis
d'Art Contemporani) Barcelona, 1983.
Castillejo, José Luis. The book of i's. Lausana.
Chopin, Henri. "Mutaciones poéticas." Poésie
Sonore Internationale (1979): 41-48. http://www.exmadrid.com/~poexperiment/b4chopinmutac.htm
(11 Oct. 2000).
D'Ors, Miguel. El caligrama, de Simmias a Apollinaire. Historia
y antología de una tradición clásica.
Universidad de Pamplona: España, 1977.
Espinosa, César H. "Poesía Postextual (o de
la intercodificación) en la era del Network." http://www.exmadrid.com/~poexperiment/a7espinosapost.htm
(15 Oct. 2000).
Fernández Santos, Juan Carlos. "La poesía
experimental en España. Algunas conclusiones." <http://huizen.dds.nl/~jaoskam/serratot.htm>
(3 May 2000).
Ferrando, Bartolomé. "La Performance como lenguaje."
(17 Oct. 2000).
Guinea, Chema de Fco. "La poesía experimental en
España. Entrevista con Fernando Millán." Espéculo
6, 1997. http://www.ucm.es/info/especulo/numero6/millan.htm
(15 April 2000).
Gubern, Román. Del bisonte a la realidad virtual. La
escena y el laberinto. Barcelona: Anagrama. 1996.
Higgins, Dick. A Dialectic of Centuries: Notes Towards a Theory
of New Arts. Printed Editions, New York, 1978.
_________ . Pattern Poetry: Guide of Unknow Literature.
State of New York Press, Albany, 1987.
Home, Stewart. "La Palingénesis de la Vanguardia"
1997. Analecta. London, Sabotage Editions, 1996.
trans. Luis Navarro.
(15 Oct. 2000).
Kempton, Karl. trans. by César Espinosa "Poesía
Visual: Definiciones, contexto y problemas de tipología"
(20 Oct. 2000)
Landow P. George. Hypertext. The convergence of Contemporary
Critical Theory and Technology. The John Hopkins University
Press. Baltimore and London, 1992.
Menezes, Philadelpho. A crise do passado. Modernidad, vanguarda,
metamodernida. Ed. Experimento,1994, Sao Paulo, Brasil.
Trans. César Espinosa. Extracted from Chpt. V (10 Oct.2000).
_________ . "Poesia Intersignos. Do impresso ao sonoro ao
digital." 1998. http://www.pucsp.br/~cos-puc/epe/mostra/catalogo.htm
(10 May 2000).
Millán Domínguez, Blanca. Poesía Visual
en España. Madrid: Información y Producciones,
Millán, Fernando. La depresión en España.
Abreojos Monografías 5, 1993.
___________ . Mitogramas. Madrid: Turner, 1978.
___________ . Poemas N.O. Madrid: Información y
___________ . "Poesía visual y experimentación
en España (1965-1997). De la vanguardia al territorio
conceptual." Texturas 8 (1998): 1-23.
___________ . Textos y Antitextos. Madrid: Parnaso 70,
___________ . "Vanguardias y vanguardismos ante el siglo
(15 Oct. 2000).
__________ . (edit.) El color en la poesía visual.
Antología consultada por José Carlos Beltrán.
Madrid: Información y Producciones, 2001.
Minarelli, Enzo. http://www.iii.it/3vitre/saggi/emanif.htm
1996. Tramesa d'Art. Valencia. Spain,1987.
Miranda, Fátima. Arte Sonado. Colección
LCD el europeo. Detursa. Spain, 1998.
Padín, Clemente. "Vanguardia y Experimentación
poética". Intersignos, Mayo 1998. http://www.mav.cl/canalcultural/pagina_de/padin/padin01.htm
(12 April 2000).
__________ . "Dificultades metodológicas en el examen
de la Poesía Experimental". 2000 2001 Huelga de
(7 July 2000).
____________ . "La poesía experimental en América
Latina". Art and People, Montevideo, 1996. http://www.abaforum.es/merzmail/lapoesia.htm
(4 June 2000).
Reixa, Antón. Ringo Rango. Edicións Xerais
de Galicia, 1992.
Rossi, Laura Agga. "El Inismo Español y Argentino."
(17 Oct. 2000).
Sabater, Xavier. (Edit.) Polipoesía. Primera Antología.
___________ . Poesía Experimental. Barcelona: Sedicions,
Seaman, David W. "Italy's Newest Poetic Avant-Garde: Inismo."
(19 Oct. 2000).
Salvo, Ramón. "Carles Sindreu I Joan Brossa en els
orígens de la poesia visual europea (1939 i 1941)."
Serrato, Juan Carlos Fernández. "La poesía
experimental en España. Algunas conclusiones." 1997
(3 July 2000).
Spatola, Adriano. Verso la poesia totale. Ed. Rumma, Salermo
Zárate, Armando. Antes de la vanguardia/ Historia y
morfología de la experimentación visual: de Teócrito
a la poesía concreta. Rodolfo Alonso Ed. Argentina,
CLICK HERE TO GO BACK
TO THE TOP OF THIS PAGE