Editor's Corner

corner: n. 1. a. The position at which two lines or surfaces meet. b. The immediate interior or exterior or exterior region of the angle formed at this position, bounded by the two lines or surfaces. 2. A vertex, esp. the interior region of a vertex, formed by the sides of roads or streets that join, meet, or intersect. 3. A threatening or embarrassing position, esp. one from which escape is difficult or impossible. 4.a. A part, quarter or region. b. A remote, secluded, or secret place. 5. A guard or decoration fitted on a corner, as of a bookbinding. 6. A speculative monopoly of a stock or commodity created by purchasing all or most of the available supply in order to raise its price.

(The American Heritage Dictionary)

I first ventured into electronic publishing in 1992 with a kind of Dada poetry book that used hypertext as its principle. After editing a literary gazette (El gato tuerto/The one-eyed cat ), and publishing poetry in numerous printed magazines and books, I wanted to explore the computer and its possibilities as a new medium. If it is true that literature is essentially richly interlinked; the printed medium imposes natural bonds of linearity. It was in an effort to overcome these limits that my Visual Games for Words & Sounds was born. Other electronic adventures followed, as my The Book of XXXIX Steps: A Game of Discovery and Imagination, inspired by Remedios Varo's paintings.

The latest attempt I made in the electronic medium, previous to CORNER, was Eboli Poetry, an international anthology of poetry on-line that, contrary to regular printed anthologies, is always growing and accessible to readers worldwide. Considering that the world wide web is giving a boost to literature on many fronts, particularly magazines, I ventured into a new project: an on-line journal dedicated to my always present passion: the avant-garde. With my experience as an editor, I wanted to profit from one of the advantages that electronic publishing offers: With a computer, a modem, access to the Internet, and the right webmaster, it is possible to put together a magazine with a relatively low production cost and make it available to thousands of Internet users who can read it at their own computer screens for free.

Electronic literature or, better expressed, literature available in electronic form, is becoming part of today's mainstream. At the end of the century, where technology is expanding the circle for the literary minded, CORNER is a plus. It breaks away from traditional scholarly journals both in form and content. CORNER has the www to disseminate its vast repository of documents, which you can browse. We can say, with Robert Kendall, that "The computer--that remarkable melting pot of all communication--has become another medium for expressing the incomparable beauty and power of the word."[1]

CORNER will publish texts that show a renewed interest in the avant-garde movements, in many instances written by non-traditional critics about non-traditional subjects. CORNER will focus primarily on criticism, but is open to collaborations that include art, fiction and poetry. CORNER's focus embraces a broad cultural perspective including avant-garde movements (past & present) in Spain, Latin America, Portugal, as well as Italy, Switzerland, France, Germany, the United States and other countries. CORNER's approach is cross disciplinary and not limited to any particular critical perspective or methodology. CORNER prefers English and Spanish as its working languages, but is open to collaborations in other languages as well. An example of this is our first issue, which shows several essays in Catalan.


A journey through the history of the Catalan avant-garde and the contents of this first issue of CORNER

At the turn of the century, several iconoclastic and radical art movements emerged from the economic, political, moral, and social upheaval surrounding the First World War. These movements that include futurism, dadaism, surrealism, and the Hispanic creacionismo and ultraísmo, constitute what several writers have called the "historical avant-garde." Stephen M. Hart's essay "The Avant-Garde in Spain and Spanish America," included in this first issue of CORNER, is an insightful analysis that goes from Vicente Huidobro until the work of Salvat-Papasseit. Hart makes us remember that between 1916 and 1924, Catalan writers experimented with Italian Futurism and drew heavily on French literary Cubism [2]. The earliest practitioners of the avant-garde in Catalonia were Josep-Maria Junoy, J.V. Foix, Joaquim Folguera and Joan Salvat-Papasseit. Practitioners of the new visual poetry, they were the bridge to "a new aesthetics that demands a radical restructuring of art involving its most basic elements." [3]

Catalonia also was the cradle of the Manifest Groc or Yellow Manifest of March 1928, signed by Salvador Dalí, Gasch and Montanyà. During the 30s the avant-garde spirit was reflected in the renewing energy of ADLAN (Amics de Les Arts Nous-Friends of the New Art), a small but influential organization founded in Barcelona in the first year of the Republic for the express purpose of encouraging vanguard movements in literature and the arts and promoting creative exchange in Spain. Other names that need to be mentioned here are those of Artur Carbonell, Angel Ferrant, Leandre Cristòfol, Esteve Francés, and Remedios Varo, among others, members of the group the Logicofobistas (Logicophobists) [4]. I do not intend this introduction to be an elaborated inventory of names, but it's important to conclude this reference to the historical avant-garde by mentioning that the art of vanguard saw its influence in Catalonia during the Spanish Civil War in expressions like cartelismo and photomontage. [5]

The avant-garde was characterized by a vigorous rejection of the past, and a no less vigorous promotion of everything new. Their aesthetic assumptions were remarkably similar, for each endorsed a total revision of contemporary aesthetic values accompanied by radical political and social change. Although they shared common aesthetic assumptions, these movements differed widely in their political positions.

The historical avant-garde all but disappeared by the end of the Second World War. But, in the decades following the war, there was a resurgence of interest for the avant-garde. For example, during the 50s, the avant-garde Catalan magazine Dau al Set (1948-1956) reflected the works of Tàpies, Cuixart, Tharrats, Ponç, Puig, Brossa and Cirlot. Brossa used the word experimental on three poems that he exposed in 1951 with the group. The interest for the vanguards has been stimulated and we can talk here of a second surrealist generation interested in the oneiric processes and German expressionism. The importance of Joan Miró is capital as a bridge with the historical avant-garde and artistic movements. This resurgence reached its height in the 60s. Among these movements, which are often referred to as the Neo-avant-garde or Neo-Dada, was George Maciunas's Fluxus-a loosely knit group of artists, writers, and musicians from the United States, Europe, and Japan.

The aesthetic program endorsed by Fluxus resembles that of the historical avant-garde. Fluxus had an extraordinary impact in Spain. Prior to founding the Spanish Fluxus, the ZAJ group, Juan Hidalgo and Walter Marchetti had taken part in the Música abierta series of concerts organized by Club 49 in Barcelona, in the Capella de Santa Agata, during the 1959-60 season; their concert for two pianos included an action. Juan Hidalgo subsequently performed action-concerts for a program on Ràdio Barcelona. Hidalgo had studied under John Cage in Darmstadt in 1958, and the two had come to become friends and worked together. Mestres Quadreny, involved with Club 49 continued to organize these concert cycles, and presented his own music-action work with the poet Joan Brossa from 1960 on. [6] The 60s in Catalonia were also marked by Informalism and Action painting (Grupo Gallot). Names like Vallès, Norotzky, Vilacasas, and Guinovart are synonymous with the times.

As Van de Pas points out "Although it was only later, in the seventies, that new generations of Catalan artists multiplied the number of individual actions, assisted by better public dissemination of their work, the sixties were fundamental in Catalonia, with artists who now enjoy considerable reputations, many of them internationally, taking the first steps in their careers." They are Mestres Quadreny, Carles Santos, Joan Brossa, Jaume Xifra, Antoni Miralda, Joan Rabascall and Benet Rossell. [7]

In the 70s, the avant-garde in Catalonia had a new aesthetic contribution: Conceptual Art. [8] This period is characterized not only by its great creative and imaginative capacity, but also by the fact that the new art has strong links with the tendencies of International Art. We find in the 70s a new impulse that "brought a breath of fresh air which taught approaches that were later to develop along other lines." [9] The way the historical avant-garde worked began to be discovered at that time. There is a new awareness of the spirit of the avant-garde with the interest in Dadaism. The Catalan artistic community rediscovered Marcel Duchamp. [10] The artist's death in 1968 led to the publication of Siete Manifiestos Dada in 1972, Pierre Cabanne's Interviews (1972), the exhibition DADA 1916-1966 that took place in Barcelona (1973) and the exhibition-tribute to Duchamp in Cadaquès (1973).

From the historical avant-garde the artists of this period welcome the mechanisms of breakage, the revolutionary utopia, and its interdisciplinary nature. Once more during the 70s Catalonia was the setting of a subversive art, both from an historic as well as aesthetic point of view. As Pilar Parcerisas points out "The radical nature of the conceptual movement and the high content of political ideology which followed in its wake, would not be understood without the historical framework from which it came, or in the context of the decline and death of Franco, of the crystallization of the step towards democracy and the hope of the national recovery of Catalonia." [11] Pop Art, Nouveau Réalisme, Arte Povera, Fluxus and happenings are part of the scene. The importance of the "Grup de trebal" (1972-1977), a group of artists who developed a new awareness of the socio-politico-economic problems of the country, must be acknowledged. Some of the participants of the group were Francesc Abad, Jordi Benito, Alicia Fingerhurt, Carles Hac Mor, Muntades, Benet Rossell, Carles Santos and Francesc Torres. They collaborated in harsh confrontations with the establishment, and created manifestos defending ephemeral works, participative art and the popularization and de-mystification of artistic displays. [12] In December 1973, the German Institute, in collaboration with the College of Architects of Barcelona organized the "Experimental Poetry Exhibition" in Barcelona [13] and in February 1974 Josep M. Figueres inaugurated the exhibition "New Catalonian Experimental Poetry" in the Sala de Actos de Amics de les Arts de Terrassa.

Although the words "the avant-garde is dead" have resounded in writings by both intellectuals, historians, and literary critics in response to the collapse of the Neo-avant-garde in the 1970s, at the end of the eighties and in the mid-nineties we find a renewed international interest in the avant-garde. This interest was stimulated by fascinating retrospective exhibitions of Fluxus all over the world, as well as exhibitions of DADA.[14]

With the revindication of the avant-garde, we find in Catalonia a number of artists who developed critical and self-reflexive postures in their actions that they later on incorporated into their video-graphic conceptual work.[15] Among them we can mention Antoni Muntadas, Francesc Abad and Francesc Torres. Different alternative art manifestations of difficult classification are born. We can mention Côclea, Aire, Revista Parlada, Revista Caminada and Cafè Central.

In the literary field the works of Carles Hac Mor and Víctor Sunyol (two creative manipulators of the Catalan language) became key documents in the Catalan avant-garde world. We find again a renewed interest in visual poetry. The poet Guillem Viladot used again the term experimental in April of 1981 at the exhibition dedicated to his work "25 Years of Experimental Poetry at Riella."

Another important exhibition of experimental poetry was organized by Ramón Salvo in 1989. The exhibition covered a period of thirty years of poetic experimentation in Catalonia. The same year the anthological exhibition 'object poé (li) tic, the Spanish experimental poetry" was coordinated by Estrella de Diego in New York. Many critics consider 1989 an important year for the history of Catalan experimental poetry. It has been possible since then to have a perspective about the past and toward the future. The 90's witnessed a renovated interest. In September of 1992 the magazine Mirall de Glaç published a special issue entitled "Visual Poetry", coordinated by J.M. Calleja. The same month the magazine Valencia Factory, under the coordination of Antonio Gómez, dedicated its issue 11 to "Experimental Poetry".

In 1992, "Guillem Viladot's Poetry Award" was created and its first contest was dedicated to Experimental Poetry.[16] Next year, a major exhibition, the "Poesía Experimental-93" was organized by J.M. Calleja and presented at the Sala Multimedia la PAPA, headquarters of the Associació de Performers, Artistas i Poetes Associats. It was a major exhibition that presented the poetic works of many authors from all around Catalonia, showing in their works a wide variety of techniques and many different plastic and poetic traditions. [17]

The 90s are marked by actions essentially paratheatrical that began in the 70s. In this context, Benet Rossell, C.H. Mor, Esther Xargay and Xavier Canals, played pioneering roles manipulating language, humor, and using in total freedom many elements of the Theatre of the Absurd, Dadaist and Surrealist Acts. [18]

Some of the artists and poets that made and keep making an impact on the Catalan avant-garde have a place in this first issue of CORNER. Some times they are the viewer-participants of the work of other artist/poet and also themselves the object of some essays (C.H. Mor, Xavier Canals); in other instances they are the critics and ludic-philosophers of their own work (José Manuel Berenguer "Autonomía Automática. Consideraciones especulativas previas a la concepción de Mental, Central, Perifèric" and Víctor Sunyol "L'ombra de l'ombra. Literatures i arts plàstiques com a correlats"). And, in their ways, some of them act as poets-critics (Antoni Clapés, "Carles Hac Mor: El desorden como lógica" and Esther Xargay, "Carles Hac Mor, escriptor," presenting this unique artist as a nihilist, self-exiled master of the ephemeral, a master of metaphors and of verbal games). Clapés reappears in CORNER as the poet founder of Cafè Central, while Xargay offers the readers a selection of her epiphanies and morphologic poetic games. In this sweeping revision of avant-garde Catalan history, Joan Brossa takes his rightful place as the final heir of Joyce, Houdini, Duchamp and Cage, being always the heir of himself. A freewheeling artist with an innate provocateur spirit, Brossa had been the touchstone artist who had challenged the artistic world since the 40s. He had created an astonishingly varied work (visual poetry, poetic objects, shows, cinema scripts) that culminated many of the works of Futurism, Dada, Surrealism, Pop Art, Fluxus, and Brossaism itself.

In keeping with Brossa's own interdisciplinarity, Xavier Canals, in his exclusive interview "Reescriure's amb llibertat amb el profeta ateu"/"Reescribirse en libertad con el profeta ateo" the main dish of this first issue, approaches Brossa's work from a variety of perspectives. We find here a vivid dialogue that includes literature, art theory, religious thought, history, biography and more, and gives the reader a new way of visualizing Brossa. A selection of Brossa's visual poems illustrates this interview. Canals, a maker and internationally known theoretician in Visual Poetry, also appears in this issue as the object of C.H. Mor's essay "Plou i fa sol als Canals Xavier" / "Llueve y brilla el sol en los Canales Xavier".

Canals is considered by many a manipulator of language, a kind of archaeologist of images and a poet-magician. In his ludic text, C. H. Mor plays essentially with the name of the artist placing him in a setting for an action that is in itself several actions and none. Canals, heir of Brossa without being one, transforms himself (as C. H. M transforms him) through a series of his visual poems. And we have more canals to navigate thanks to Canals' "Música-Poesía Visual;" some reflexions that immerse us into the realm of visual-musical experimentalism. The players in this theorethical approach are as varied as Llull and Cage, to mention only two of the many influences in Canals' thoughts. We complete the navigation through the multiple canals with photographic testimony of Performances or "Acciones" by Canals himself (and others) in "Revista andada" y DADA contextualizado."

Another artist whose work has developed in many different directions, all of which tend to have visual poetry, understood in its broadest sense, is J.M. Calleja. He is known for his poetic actions, books, mail-art, chapbooks, videos and installations. Kevin Power's essay "J.M. Calleja: Collage, Score, Music, Silence" deals with the artist's geography of "visual sounds" in "Música per als ulls," the title of Calleja's exhibition in the Galeria H20 of Barcelona in May 1996. Power's essay is accompanied by a series of visual poems where Calleja places his collage elements within the structure of the score. The essay is also a reflection on contemporary music, visual poetry in general, and the vanguards.

Also from Barcelona are Maite Jou's "Poética de A MA ZU LAT: los dominós de Jaime D. Parra," a theoretical approach with touches on personal remembrances to Parra's graphic poems built up with pieces of dominoes. Parra, a Spanish Semiologist and specialist in the works of Eduardo Cirlot, insightfully studies Cirlot's poetic cosmovision in his "Los versos ingleses de Cirlot: Una síntesis de su apuesta por la vanguardia." Cirlot elaborated a poetic cosmovision that he related with the research on mystic symbolism carried out by Marius Schneider, Gershom Scholem and Henry Corbin. Cirlot's "Bronwyn Circle," analyzed by Parra, is a cardinal work of his symbolic-mystic vision, and his non-world, linked with the doctrines of the Persian Sufi mystics and Corbin's theories of the álâm al mithâl , the place without location or Nâ-Kojâ . Parra also provided me with "Dos semblanzas y un testimonio" dedicated to Xavier Canals, Antonio Beneyto and to the survival of the "latest vanguard."

Other avant-garde figures, already mentioned above, are a necessary presence in this first issue of our journal. They are Antonio Beneyto and Benet Rossell. There is a Dossier Beneyto, which shows part of his world of obsessive oneiric visions and bizarre fantastic community of strange beings. A selection of eight "descaradamente postistas" drawings are presented here. CORNER offers its readers some insights about Benet Rossell, a singular artist who cultivates an unusual, very personal and intimate art. His work is enriched with a selection of his Zen avant-garde calligraphic universe and paintings.

A note-homage dedicated to the Croatian avant-garde writer Janko Polic Kamov completes the international landscape of the Catalonian vanguard. Kamov spent the last 40 days of his short life in Barcelona where he died on August 8, 1910. It was in Barcelona, in the office of the magazine Lateral, where I discovered Kamov in 1997, thanks to the book by Mladen Urem dedicated to the writer. Back in the Bay Area, I wrote a letter to Urem and he enthusiastically sent me a copy of his study as well as some reviews published about it. With his permission, I am including some fragments of his introduction and some illustrations of his book.

Reconnecting with the Latin American vanguards, presented in Hart's essay mentioned at the beginning of this journey, we have Elizabeth Coonrod Martínez's "Back to the Future in Vanguardia Narrative: Martín Adán's Vision and Revisioning of the New Era," an essay that makes us open with new keys La casa de cartón (The Cardboard House ), the only novel published in 1928 by Adán, one the most fascinating Peruvian poets of all times. Adán's narrative fiction is a masterpiece of subjective impressions, sensations, and emotions by a nameless youthful narrator of Barranco and Lima. It is essentially a "kaleidoscopic" bildungsroman of the formation of an artist. In the trend of rethinking the meaning of art, culture and identity in the Hispanic world the essay "El simulacro de la representación en Zootsuit " by Héctor Mario Cavallari analyses the strategies of representation in the film text of Zootsuit by the Chicano writer and director Luis Valdez. The analysis serves as a pre-text to a discussion of the film's deconstructive potential confronting empiricist ideology. The study is premised on the idea that, by focusing on the problematical theme of "representation" in the filmtext, it becomes possible to reveal and specify an important though "invisible" cluster of notions which subtend the relationship between "fiction", "truth", and "reality" within a particular discursive order.

Also included ia a selected bibliography which lists representative works dedicated to the Spanish and Latin American Vanguards.



I would like to acknowledge the enthusiasm with which many of my friends received the idea of CORNER:

The Spanish artist Antonio Beneyto suggested the name CORNER for this magazine, taking the word from an international understandable term used in football; CORNER is also the translation of esquina, a word with avant-garde connotations: In the 60s, the Colección LA ESQUINA was edited in Barcelona by Beneyto himself, publishing in chapbook format the works of some of the keystone figures of the Hispanic vanguard of those times: A.F. Molina, Juan-Eduardo Cirlot, Joan Brossa, Carlos Edmundo de Ory, Alejandra Pizarnik, and Beneyto, among others.

The Catalan visual artist J.M. Calleja surprised me one evening at the Carrer dels Còdols in Barcelona, my corner in the Gothic Quarter, with a present: a visual poem titled "Corner" that became the logo for this on-line magazine. Other artists whose support, ideas and contacts made this first issue possible are Xavier Canals, Teresa Hereu, and Carles Hac Mor.

My friend Mihály Dés, editor of Lateral, a literary magazine published in Barcelona, immediately published a note about the new on-line CORNER. Genaro Pérez, editor of the Monographic Review/Revista Monográfica, gave me a good advice: "to be patient." With a new, non-traditional publication exploring a new-medium, developing a community of readers takes time.

I am also profoundly indebted to Renée Jadushlever, Director of the F. W. Olin Library, Mills College, for her support and suggestions. I want to thank Janice Braun, Mills College's Special Collections Library, for guiding me through several avant-garde publications. I am grateful to the members of the Editorial Board who joined me in this adventure and provided me with materials, ideas, and most important, trusted me. Above all, I need to thank Servando González, WebMaster extraordinaire and designer of CORNER, for the help he provided at every single step of this project, for his support and patience working with me, and for his expertise in optimizing graphic files for maximum quality and minimum downloading time, and for his magic art of finding missing files which apparently found a secret pleasure hiding in remote "corners" of the hard drive.

In designing CORNER we faced the difficulties of reproducing in a new medium, with intrinsic low resolution output, graphic materials created for the printed page, a high resolution medium. We hope that CORNER will challenge the new generation of avant-garde artists to create materials expressly conceived for the new electronic medium.

I don't want to finish this editorial without wishing CORNER a good life and readership. Let CORNER be also an homage to Mills College's avant-garde history. Since the 30s, many vanguard artists, painters, writers and composers have found this corner of the world, the Mills campus (a place where I came to teach in 1992), a niche for inspiration and work. The list is long, so I will mention only a few names: Alfred Neumeyer, Darius Milhaud, Madeleine Milhaud, Lazlo Maholy-Nagy, Max Beckmann, Alfred Neumeyer, Alexander Archipenko, Fernand Léger, Lyonel Feininger, Tina Flade, John Cage, Lou Harrison, Henry Cowell, Robert Ashley, Ramón Sender, Pauline Oliveros, Maggi Payne, John Bischoff, Chris Brown, Alvin Curran, Trisha Brown, Molissa Fenley and Antoni Clapés.


In the spirit of this changing world, I suggest we consider the formula:



Carlota Caulfield




1. Robert Kendall,"Writing for the New Millennium: The Birth of Electronic Literature." Poets & Writers Magazine , (Nov.-Dec.1995): 39.

2. See, for example Guillermo Díaz-Plaja, L'avantguardisme a Catalunya i altres notes de critica (Barcelona: "La Revista," 1932) 17-18 and Willard Bohn, The aesthetics of visual poetry (London: Cambridge UP, 1986): 85-145.

3. Ibid., 90.

4. The organization lasted until 1936. It was founded by Josep-Luis Sert, Joan Prats, and Joaquim Gomis. Among its members were Joan Miró, Sebastián Gasch, and J.V. Foix. It exponsered exhibitions of work by Jean Arp, Man Ray, Dalí, Miró, and Picasso; objects from African, Oceanic, and pre-Columbian cultures; and exhibitions of "objects in bad taste," children's games, drawings by the insane, nineteenth century postcards. ADLAN sponsored the first and only exhibit of the Logicophobists which took place in May 1936 at the Glorieta Catalonia. This alliance of artists and writers proclaimed the union of art and metaphysics in the manifesto that accompanied the exhibition. The spirit of the group was essentially surrealist. For more complete information about the Logicophobists see Janet A. Kaplan, Unexpected Journeys. The Art and Life of Remedios Varo (New York: Abbeville Press, 1988) 44 & 250. ADLAN was closely linked to GATCPAC (Sert, Torres Clavé, Illescas, R. Arias).

5. I need to thank Antoni Clapés for initially being my connection to the Catalan avant-garde. After many years of not visiting Barcelona, the city of my paternal grandmother, I returned in 1995 to participate in some of the activities of the group Cafè Central that Clapés, with his wife Isabel Casals, created in the 80s. Not only did he welcome me as his guest, but he opened his valuable library to my researcher's curiosity and put me in contact with many Catalan artists and writers. One year later, with support from Mills College, I was able to invite him to lecture about the avant-garde as part of our Hispanic Studies Spring Lecture Series.' lecture "Un siglo de vanguardias en Cataluña (1900-1995)" delivered on March 20, 1996, proved to be a keynote to my own work and to this Editor's Corner.

6. Many of these references are taken from the Catalogue of Idees i Actituds. Entorn de l'Art Conceptual a Catalunya, 1964-1980 . (Barcelona: Generalitat de Catalunya, 1992).The exhibit took place in the Centre d'Art Santa Monica from January 15 until March 1st, 1992. Of particular interest, in order to follow the trajectories of the Catalan Neo Avant-Garde, are the essays by Annemieke Van de Pas, Teresa Camps Miró and Alicia Suárez-Mercè Vidal. For information about the action-concerts in Barcelona see Estudis escénics. Quaderns de l'Institut del Teatre de Barcelona 29 (March 1988).

7. Annemieke Van de Pas, "1964-1980: Moments d'acció en les trajectòries dels artistes catalans" ("1964:1980: Moments of action in the trajectories of Catalan Artists.") Catalogue of the exhibit Idees i Actitudes 55-60 and 325-328.

8. For the Conceptual artists the idea was more important than the material. Conceptual art valued the ephemeral rather than the durable, and questioned the nature of the work of art and of the avant-garde itself. The artists introduced new mediums and recognized them as works of art, such as written language, the manipulated object, actions with the body itself and video, which was considered an artistic medium from that moment on. .

9. Pilar Parcerisas, "A l'altra banda del mur" ("On the other side of the wall"). Catalogue of the exhibit Idees i Actitudes 13-23 and 305-310. According to a note in the title of this essay, wall means here that insurmountable wall of established avant-garde which informalism represented to the new generation of concept artists, and at the same time, the idea of the wall as material painting and texture as embodied by this current.

10. Duchamp came to have an extraordinary impact in the international artistic community. Among John Cage and his friends and admirers, the reconsideration of Duchamp began around the 50s. The artist was also rediscovered in Europe thanks to Richard Hamilton, and the French Nouveau Réalisme of Arman and Tinguely. This renewed interest was felt in Catalonia much later.

11. Parcerisas 306.

12. For a study of the Group see Antoni Mercader "Sobre el Grup de Treball" (About the Grup de Treball). Catalogue of the exhibit Idees i Actitudes 65-71 & 331-334. The first piece of the GDT dates from July 1973. It was a publication/catalogue that contained a programmed text (about the presence of the group in the Art Section of the Fifth Catalan Summer University in Prada. Its public presence ended in 1977 with the exhibition "Artistic avant-garde and social realism in the Spanish State, 1936-1976" at the Miró Foundation.

13. The exhibition came from Madrid to Barcelona, where the Catalan poets added their work. See Poesía Experimental-93 (Barcelona: Sabater Edicions, 1993). With an introduction by Ramón Salvo and the coordination of J.M. Calleja, this catalogue is a valuable source for the study of the history of Experimental Poetry in Catalonia.

14. Some of the reflections for this editorial originated as the presentation of the exhibit "The Avant-Garde: Past and Present" organized in the Fall of 1993 by David Bernstein, Dean of Fine Arts, and myself at the F. W. Olin Library, Mills College. The principal question raised by our display was "Will the avant-garde rise again? or, as Andreas Huyssen has critically observed in his book After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass-Culture, Post-Modernism (1986), have we already witnessed "the fragmentation and decline of the avant-garde as a genuinely critical adversary culture?"

15.See Van de Pas 326.

16. The artists Francesc Abad and Carme Riera were the winner ex aequo of the first prize that consisted in a million pesetas. The two finalists, also ex aequo, were the J.M. Calleja and C.H.Mor.

17. See Catalogue of the exhibition. We find works by Albert Ràfols-Casamada, Benet Rossell, Andreu Terrades, J.M. Calleja, C.H. Mor, Xavier Canals, Gustavo Vega, Antoni Tàpies-Barba, Guillem Viladot and Joan Brossa. In the Epilogue to the Catalogue, Salvo takes a general approach to the experimental Catalan poetry considering that what we find is: 1. Different traditions coexisting together; 2. Most of the poets did begin their work long time ago; 3. Most of them use collage as technical skill; 4. Almost all the works are hand made except for two of them that are computer made; 5.There is no representation by women; 6. Half of the poets are Catalonian.

Amongst the young artists who in the 90s keep consolidating a new vision of art we need to mention Miquel Valdasquin (Barcelona, 1959) and the German Christoph Hafner (Hall, 1964), both living and working in Barcelona. Two of their most interesting works, are the installation Signalhorn (1991) and Hipertext (1992). This second has as its theme the later correlation between text and computer, and the new changes taking place in relation to the traditional text. The four texts that form part of the installation are by Joan Brossa, Julio Cortázar, Tristan Tzara and Lewis Carroll.

18. Two examples of these actions are "a paraparoenic hyposepsis" by C.H. Mor, Rossell and Xargay in Perifèrics 91 (Teatre Obert festival in Vic, May, 1991) and "L'acció contra l'acció" Teoria i pràctica d'un llenguatge artístic sense codi organized by C.H. Mor and Xargay with the participation of Jordi Benito, Josep Manuel Berenguer i Clara Garí (Côclea), Barbara Held, Angels Ribé, Benet Rossell, Eulàlia Valldosera, Pep Aymerich, J.M. Calleja, Xavier Canals, Jordi Cerdà and Nieves Correa among others in La Virreina, Barcelona (24, 25 and 26 of January, 1996). They are part of Rossell's exhibition Diario Residual (Residual Diary), a series of reciprocally informing and enriching installations that represent one particular anthological view of the course of Rossell's artistic development up to the present.









Contrary to common belief, hypertext is a term that comes from literature not from the computer field. Ted Nelson, the guru of hypertext who in fact coined the term, named his ultimate universal hypertext system Xanadu, after Coleridge's poem.